A âdirty bombâ is a radiological dispersal device (RDD) that combines a conventional explosive, such as dynamite, with radioactive material that may disperse when the device explodes. In an RDD attack, most people are unlikely to learn that the attack involved radioactive materials until hours or days later. Regardless, we only recommend content that informed our research and which we genuinely believe will add value to our readers. The Defense (Emergency) Regulations of 1945 of the Bri… Pearson, W. and Firmin, R. (2011) Go! Just because people are near radioactive material for a short time or get a small amount of radioactive dust on them does not mean they will get cancer, and any additional risk is likely to be extremely small. Interesting cases include the hostage crisis in Iran (1979-1981) and in Entebbe in 1976 (David, 2016, pp. 414-415). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sweating and muscular twitching at the site of contact, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weakness. Urea nitrate is used as a secondary explosive/main charge. At the core of the work is Ajit Maan’s textual analysis of two propaganda narratives, one from the World Islamic Front and the other from Stormfront.org. The corresponding reputational damage to US President Jimmy Carter likely cost him a second term in office. HMTD is corrosive in contact in metals and can degrade quickly if improperly synthesized or stored. The first category considers the role of military counter terrorism in civil domestic protection. 37-57)). Indeed, Muslim American communities have categorically condemned terrorism, worked with law enforcement to help prevent terrorist attacks, and forged creative programs to protect their sons and daughters from al-Qaâidaâs murderous ideology. Covert bugging of cars and homes of terrorist suspects also proved fruitful, but occasionally led to embarrassing mistakes (Hartnett, 2016, pp. Hodder Paperback. Tactics, techniques, and procedures for manhunting are under constant development. Sharing knowledge and threat insight with government and civilian partners is important in developing operational effectiveness across the various layers of cyber defence and critical national infrastructure (Lowenthal, 2016, pp. An explosive mixture of ammonium nitrate and an organic fuel. The device kills or injures through the initial blast of the conventional explosive and by spreading radiation and contamination. Matthews, A. Merrion Press. Ricin is unlikely to be absorbed through normal skin. Major losses would be recorded on the balance sheet if counter terrorism capabilities were used to oppress. Ramsay, M. (2009) ‘Can the torture of terrorist suspects be justified’, in Andrew, C., Aldrich, R. J., and Wark, W. K. (eds) Secret Intelligence: A Reader. Counter-terrorism (also spelled counterterrorism) is the practices, tactics, techniques, and strategies that governments, militaries, police departments and corporations adopt to prevent or in response to terrorist threats and/or acts, both real and imputed. Counter-Terrorism: Narrative Strategies exhibits a rare combination of insight, originality, and logic in arguing for the significance of narrative approaches to soft counter-terror strategies. The use of Special Forces in hostage rescue in foreign states is also relevant in this category. It is more toxic and longer-lived than related nerve agents Tabun and Sarin, which dissipate quickly and have only short-term effects. 221-222), raise questions over proportionality and effect. We really look forward to hearing from you. Threat—This Strategy recognizes there are numerous nations and groups that support terrorism to oppose U.S. interests, including Iran, Syria, Hezbollah and HAMAS, and we will use the full range of our foreign policy tools to protect the United States against these threats. There is no room to derogate from the Geneva Conventions and little evidence of the efficacy of torture. The categorisation of all “military aged males” as active combatants (Lawson, 2013, p. 161) is somewhat dubious. A dirty bomb could contaminate buildings and the local environment, and expose people to radiation emanating from the radioactive material. doi: 10.1525/sp.2007.54.1.23. Nasaw, D. (2008) ‘US authorities say deceased scientist responsible for anthrax attacks’, The Guardian, August. Drone strikes and targeted killings prosecuted by the United States against targets in Pakistan, Yemen and Somalia provide examples. Building government and law enforcement expertise for preventing violent extremism. It can be very unstable and sensitive to heat, shock, and friction. doi: 10.1162/ISEC_a_00266. The Anti Terrorism & Security Group has responsibilities in countering and responding to terrorism through investigative and intelligence operations and provides State security through dignitary and witness protection. (2009) ‘Intelligence in Northern Ireland’, in Andrew, C., Aldrich, R. J., and Wark, W. K. (eds) Secret Intelligence: A Reader. Decisive action may be needed to counter a sudden threat. It will introduce you to behavioural detection through a major role playing exercise simulating counter terrorism scenario that comprises technical and human surveillance techniques. The use of enhanced interrogation and alleged torture has done much to energise anti-coalition sentiment and resistance. The idea behind a dirty bomb is to spread radioactive material into some populated area and cause anxiety in those who think they are being, or have been, exposed to radiation. Harnden, T. (2011) ‘Libyan arms helped the IRA to wage war’, The Telegraph, 4 April. Its indicators may include increased attack cadence and ferocity, new hostile actors or alliances, attacks in other regions or countries, diplomatic fall out and sanctions. But it was the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks that made counterterrorism a pillar of domestic and foreign policy in the U.S. and beyond. Nerve agents are the most toxic and rapidly acting of the known chemical warfare agents. The interdiction of drugs, arms and people trafficking denies terrorists weaponry, funding and operatives. Merry, R. (1974) Tanks guard London airport; Arab attack on airliner feared, Chicago Tribune. Its insensitivity to shock and friction reduces the risk of accidental detonation. The applicability of each technique (in terms of ethics, proportionality and legality), its tactical and strategic efficacy as well as the nature and danger of blowback are highly complex and contextual. Sweating and muscular twitching at the site of contact, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weakness. Steps to Counter Terrorism: Propose Department Strategy. The failure, mostly attributable to weather and technical problems, gifted Ayatollah Khomeini a significant propaganda coup. Bamford, B. 945–964. Oxford: Routledge. Matchett, W. (2016) Secret Victory: the intelligence war that beat the IRA. In the absence of a national plan, the individual application of selected tactics and policies can do more harm than good. In evaluating their suitability and effectiveness as policy instruments, it is helpful to contextualise them within five simple categories (loosely derived from (Hughes, 2011, pp. The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States heightened the necessity of implementing counter-terrorism methods for federal officials. To recruit well-positioned CHIS within Jihadi networks is somewhat elusive ( Aid 2009... 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